Scientific Papers

Scientific Papers (5)

Mounting evidence has firmly established that low levels of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are associated with a high risk of cardiovascular disease, all-cause mortality, and mortality rates attributable to various cancers. A growing body of epidemiological and clinical evidence demonstrates not only that CRF is a potentially stronger predictor of mortality than established risk factors such as smoking, hypertension, high cholesterol, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, but that the addition of CRF to traditional risk factors significantly improves the reclassification of risk for adverse outcomes.

The beneficial effects of exercise are countless. Pedersen et al. now link exercise, cancer, and immunity and reveal that exercise decreases tumor incidence and growth by over 60% across several mouse tumor models through a direct regulation of NK cell mobilization and trafficking in an epinephrine- and IL- 6-dependent manner.

The circulating level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is reduced in patients with major depression and type-2 diabetes. Because acute exercise increases BDNF production in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex, we hypothesized that endurance training would enhance the release of BDNF from the human brain as detected from arterial and internal jugular venous blood samples. In a randomized controlled study, 12 healthy sedentary males carried out 3 mo of endurance training (n = 7) or served as controls (n = 5). Before and after the intervention, blood samples were obtained at rest and during exercise. At baseline, the training group (58 ± 106 ng·100 g−1·min−1, means ± SD) and the control group (12 ± 17 ng·100 g−1·min−1) had a similar release of BDNF from the brain at rest. Three months of endurance training enhanced the resting release of BDNF to 206 ± 108 ng·100 g−1·min−1 (P < 0.05), with no significant change in the control subjects, but there was no training-induced increase in the release of BDNF during exercise.

Despite the emerging body of research on the potential of physical activity to improve learning and academic achievement, conclusive evidence regarding the effects of physical activity on academic achievement is lacking. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of a physical activity intervention program on academic performance.

Higher cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and physical activity (PA) in old age are associated with greater brain structural and functional integrity, and higher cognitive functioning. However, it is not known how different aspects of lifestyle such as sedentariness, light PA (LIPA), or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MV-PA) relate to neural activity in aging.